Well, first I suggest you start with the Princess Jellyfish anime! ^_^ The subtitled version is streaming for free on Funimation’s website. It’s great, I really love it! <3 Crunchyroll has Chihayafuru, if you want to see the other big josei title people keep talking about.
Here is a good article on the Timeline of Josei in the US. It’s a few years out of date now, but it includes a lot of good links and comments. More recently, Shojo Beat has also added two more josei titles to their line, Happy Marriage?! and Midnight Secretary (both are of the “shoujo with sex” josei variety, similar to Butterflies, Flowers).
My favorite josei manga-ka is probably Fumi Yoshinaga, and luckily a lot of her stuff has been published over here! (Vertical just licensed her ongoing seinen title, What Did You Eat Yesterday?.) A lot of her stuff falls into the BL/yaoi genre, so be prepared for some sexual content. They’re all very good, though— I’ve heard a lot of people say things like “I don’t read yaoi— oh, but if it’s Fumi Yoshinaga, sure!” She’s very good at writing characters, not the stereotypes you run into often in the yaoi genre… ^_^